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ikenbot:

Centella Asiatica


  Centella asiatica, commonly centella (Sinhala: ගොටුකොල, gotu kola in Sinhala, Mandukaparni in Sanskritमधुकपर्णी,Kannada (ಒಂದೆಲಗ). Tamil: வல்லாரை, vallarai  in Tamil, Kodakan in Malayalam(കൊടകന്‍)), is a small, herbaceous, annual plant of the family Mackinlayaceae or subfamily Mackinlayoideae of family Apiaceae, and is native to India, Sri Lanka, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, and other parts of Asia. It is used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Botanical synonyms include Hydrocotyle asiatica L. and Trisanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.).
  
  Centella is a mild adaptogen, is mildly antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, anxiolytic, nervine and vulnerary, and can act as a cerebral tonic, a circulatory stimulant, and a diuretic.
  
  Centella asiatica may be useful in the treatment of anxiety.
  
  In Thailand, tisanes of the leaves are used as an afternoon stimulant. A decoction of juice from the leaves is thought to relieve hypertension. A poultice of the leaves is also used to treat open sores.
  
  Richard Lucas claimed in a book published in 1966(second edition in 1979) that a subspecies “Hydrocotyle asiatica minor” allegedly from Sri Lanka also called fo ti tieng, contained a longevity factor called ‘youth Vitamin X’ said to be ‘a tonic for the brain and endocrine glands’ and maintained that extracts of the plant help circulation and skin problems. However according to medicinal herbalist Michael Moore, it appears that there is no such subspecies and no Vitamin X is known to exist.
  
  Several scientific reports have documented Centella asiatica’s ability to aid wound healing which is responsible for its traditional use in leprosy. Upon treatment with Centella asiatica, maturation of the scar is stimulated by the production of type I collagen. The treatment also results in a marked decrease in inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production.
  
  The isolated steroids from the plant also have been used to treat leprosy. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that it may have nootropic effects. Centella asiatica is used to revitalize the brain and nervous system, increase attention span and concentration, and combat aging. Centella asiatica also has antioxidant properties. It works for venous insufficiency. It is used in Thailand for opium detoxification.
  
  Followers of Sri Sri Thakur Anukulchandra, commonly known as Satsangees, all over the world take one or two fresh leaves with plenty of water in the morning after morning rituals. This is prescribed by Sri Sri Thakur himself.
  
  Many reports show the medicinal properties of C. asiatica extract in a wide range of disease conditions, such as diabetic microangiopathy, edema, venous hypertension, and venous insufficiency. The role of C. asiatica extract in the treatment of memory enhancement and other neurodegenerative disorders is also well documented. The first report concerning the antitumor property of C. asiatica extract was on its growth inhibitory effects on the development of solid and ascites tumors, which lead to increased life span of tumor-bearing mice. The authors also suggested the extract directly impeded the DNA synthesis. “In our study, C. asiatica extract showed an obvious dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells.”
  
  The Effects of Gotu Kola on the Brain
  
  Traditionally, Gotu kola has been used as a brain tonic to support memory. It has been called a “brain food” and has been recommended for overstressed people, mood, to improve reflexes and to support feelings of calmness. Gotu kola has also been studied in humans and was found to have a positive influence on enhancing peripheral circulation.
  
  Scientific research into Gotu kola extracts and its effects on the brain really only began in earnest in the past decade. In 2002, Gotu kola water extracts were administered to rats, where it improved their cognitive function in terms of learning and memory in a standard shuttle box avoidance and step through test. Brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of overall oxidative stress, was reduced, and brain levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione were increased.

ikenbot:

Centella Asiatica

Centella asiatica, commonly centella (Sinhala: ගොටුකොල, gotu kola in Sinhala, Mandukaparni in Sanskritमधुकपर्णी,Kannada (ಒಂದೆಲಗ). Tamil: வல்லாரை, vallarai in Tamil, Kodakan in Malayalam(കൊടകന്‍)), is a small, herbaceous, annual plant of the family Mackinlayaceae or subfamily Mackinlayoideae of family Apiaceae, and is native to India, Sri Lanka, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, and other parts of Asia. It is used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Botanical synonyms include Hydrocotyle asiatica L. and Trisanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.).

Centella is a mild adaptogen, is mildly antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, anxiolytic, nervine and vulnerary, and can act as a cerebral tonic, a circulatory stimulant, and a diuretic.

Centella asiatica may be useful in the treatment of anxiety.

In Thailand, tisanes of the leaves are used as an afternoon stimulant. A decoction of juice from the leaves is thought to relieve hypertension. A poultice of the leaves is also used to treat open sores.

Richard Lucas claimed in a book published in 1966(second edition in 1979) that a subspecies “Hydrocotyle asiatica minor” allegedly from Sri Lanka also called fo ti tieng, contained a longevity factor called ‘youth Vitamin X’ said to be ‘a tonic for the brain and endocrine glands’ and maintained that extracts of the plant help circulation and skin problems. However according to medicinal herbalist Michael Moore, it appears that there is no such subspecies and no Vitamin X is known to exist.

Several scientific reports have documented Centella asiatica’s ability to aid wound healing which is responsible for its traditional use in leprosy. Upon treatment with Centella asiatica, maturation of the scar is stimulated by the production of type I collagen. The treatment also results in a marked decrease in inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production.

The isolated steroids from the plant also have been used to treat leprosy. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that it may have nootropic effects. Centella asiatica is used to revitalize the brain and nervous system, increase attention span and concentration, and combat aging. Centella asiatica also has antioxidant properties. It works for venous insufficiency. It is used in Thailand for opium detoxification.

Followers of Sri Sri Thakur Anukulchandra, commonly known as Satsangees, all over the world take one or two fresh leaves with plenty of water in the morning after morning rituals. This is prescribed by Sri Sri Thakur himself.

Many reports show the medicinal properties of C. asiatica extract in a wide range of disease conditions, such as diabetic microangiopathy, edema, venous hypertension, and venous insufficiency. The role of C. asiatica extract in the treatment of memory enhancement and other neurodegenerative disorders is also well documented. The first report concerning the antitumor property of C. asiatica extract was on its growth inhibitory effects on the development of solid and ascites tumors, which lead to increased life span of tumor-bearing mice. The authors also suggested the extract directly impeded the DNA synthesis. “In our study, C. asiatica extract showed an obvious dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells.”

The Effects of Gotu Kola on the Brain

Traditionally, Gotu kola has been used as a brain tonic to support memory. It has been called a “brain food” and has been recommended for overstressed people, mood, to improve reflexes and to support feelings of calmness. Gotu kola has also been studied in humans and was found to have a positive influence on enhancing peripheral circulation.

Scientific research into Gotu kola extracts and its effects on the brain really only began in earnest in the past decade. In 2002, Gotu kola water extracts were administered to rats, where it improved their cognitive function in terms of learning and memory in a standard shuttle box avoidance and step through test. Brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of overall oxidative stress, was reduced, and brain levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione were increased.

Post by afro-dominicano (via scinerds)
December 5, 2012 at 10:41 PM | Post Permalink | 91 notes



ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology:

fuckyeahneuroscience:

Scientists Identify Gene Required for Nerve Regeneration | Sci-News.com
A gene that is associated with regeneration of injured nerve cells has been identified by a team of researchers led by Prof Melissa Rolls of Penn State University.
The team has found that a mutation in a single gene can entirely shut down the process by which axons – the parts of the nerve cell that are responsible for sending signals to other cells – regrow themselves after being cut or damaged.
“We are hopeful that this discovery will open the door to new research related to spinal-cord and other neurological disorders in humans,” said Prof Rolls, who co-authored a paper published online in the journal Cell Reports.
“Axons, which form long bundles extending out from nerve cells, ideally survive throughout an animal’s lifetime. To be able to survive, nerve cells need to be resilient and, in the event of injury or simple wear and tear, some can repair damage by growing new axons,” Prof Rolls explained.
Previous studies suggested that microtubules – the intracellular ‘highways’ along which basic building blocks are transported – might need to be rebuilt as an important step in this type of repair.
“In many ways this idea makes sense: in order to grow a new part of a nerve, raw materials will be needed, and the microtubule highways will need to be organized to take the new materials to the site of growth,” Prof Rolls said.
The team therefore started to investigate the role of microtubule-remodeling proteins in axon regrowth after injury. In particular, they focused on a set of proteins that sever microtubules into small pieces. Out of this set, a protein named spastin emerged as a key player in axon regeneration.
Above: In fruit flies with two normal copies of the spastin gene, a team of scientists led by Prof Melissa Rolls of Penn State University found that severed axons were able to regenerate. However, in fruit flies with two or even only one abnormal spastin gene, the severed axons were not able to regenerate (Melissa Rolls / Penn State University)

Original paper here. 

ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology:

fuckyeahneuroscience:

Scientists Identify Gene Required for Nerve Regeneration | Sci-News.com

A gene that is associated with regeneration of injured nerve cells has been identified by a team of researchers led by Prof Melissa Rolls of Penn State University.

The team has found that a mutation in a single gene can entirely shut down the process by which axons – the parts of the nerve cell that are responsible for sending signals to other cells – regrow themselves after being cut or damaged.

“We are hopeful that this discovery will open the door to new research related to spinal-cord and other neurological disorders in humans,” said Prof Rolls, who co-authored a paper published online in the journal Cell Reports.

“Axons, which form long bundles extending out from nerve cells, ideally survive throughout an animal’s lifetime. To be able to survive, nerve cells need to be resilient and, in the event of injury or simple wear and tear, some can repair damage by growing new axons,” Prof Rolls explained.

Previous studies suggested that microtubules – the intracellular ‘highways’ along which basic building blocks are transported – might need to be rebuilt as an important step in this type of repair.

“In many ways this idea makes sense: in order to grow a new part of a nerve, raw materials will be needed, and the microtubule highways will need to be organized to take the new materials to the site of growth,” Prof Rolls said.

The team therefore started to investigate the role of microtubule-remodeling proteins in axon regrowth after injury. In particular, they focused on a set of proteins that sever microtubules into small pieces. Out of this set, a protein named spastin emerged as a key player in axon regeneration.

Above: In fruit flies with two normal copies of the spastin gene, a team of scientists led by Prof Melissa Rolls of Penn State University found that severed axons were able to regenerate. However, in fruit flies with two or even only one abnormal spastin gene, the severed axons were not able to regenerate (Melissa Rolls / Penn State University)

Original paper here

Post by fuckyeahneuroscience (via ohyeahdevelopmentalbiology)
November 17, 2012 at 7:56 PM | Post Permalink | 601 notes



ikenbot:


  Animals Are Moral Creatures, Scientist Argues
  
  Until recently, scientists would have said your cat was snuggling up to you only as a means to get tasty treats. But many animals have a moral compass, and feel emotions such as love, grief, outrage and empathy, a new book argues.
  
  The book, “Can Animals Be Moral?” (Oxford University Press, October 2012), suggests social mammals such as rats, dogs and chimpanzees can choose to be good or bad. And because they have morality, we have moral obligations to them, said author Mark Rowlands, a University of Miami philosopher.
  
  “Animals are owed a certain kind of respect that they wouldn’t be owed if they couldn’t act morally,” Rowlands told LiveScience. But while some animals have complex emotions, they don’t necessarily have true morality, other researchers argue.
  
  Moral behavior?
  
  Some research suggests animals have a sense of outrage when social codes are violated. Chimpanzees may punish other chimps for violating certain rules of the social order, said Marc Bekoff, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and co-author of “Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals” (University Of Chicago Press, 2012).
  
  Male bluebirds that catch their female partners stepping out may beat the female, said Hal Herzog, a psychologist at Western Carolina University who studies how humans think about animals.
  
  And there are many examples of animals demonstrating ostensibly compassionate or empathetic behaviors toward other animals, including humans. In one experiment, hungry rhesus monkeys refused to electrically shock their fellow monkeys, even when it meant getting food for themselves. In another study, a female gorilla named Binti Jua rescued an unconscious 3-year-old (human) boy who had fallen into her enclosure at the Brookline Zoo in Illinois, protecting the child from other gorillas and even calling for human help. And when a car hit and injured a dog on a busy Chilean freeway several years ago, its canine compatriot dodged traffic, risking its life to drag the unconscious dog to safety.
  
  All those examples suggest that animals have some sense of right and wrong, Rowlands said. “I think what’s at the heart of following morality is the emotions,” Rowlands said. “Evidence suggests that animals can act on those sorts of emotions.”
  
  Instinct, not morals?
  
  Not everyone agrees these behaviors equal morality, however. One of the most obvious examples — the guilty look of a dog that has just eaten a forbidden food — may not be true remorse, but simply the dog responding appropriately to its owner’s disappointment, according to a study published in the journal Behavioural Processes in 2009.
  
  And animals don’t seem to develop or follow rules that serve no purpose for them or their species, suggesting they don’t reason about morality. Humans, in contrast, have a grab bag of moral taboos, such as prohibitions on eating certain foods, committing blasphemy, or marrying distant cousins.
  
  “What I think is interesting about human morality is that often times there’s this wacky, arbitrary feature of it,” Herzog said. Instead, animal emotions may be rooted in instinct and hard-wiring, rather than conscious choice, Herzog said. “They look to us like moral behaviors, but they’re not rooted in the same mire of intellect and culture and language that human morality is,” he said.
  
  Hard-wired morality
  
  But Rowlands argues that such hair-splitting is overthinking things. In the case of the child-rescuing gorilla Binti Jua, for instance, “what sort of instinct is involved there? Do gorillas have an instinct to help unconscious boys in enclosures?” he said.
  
  And even if instinct is involved, human parents have an instinctive desire to help their children, but that makes the desire no less moral, he said. Being able to reason about morality isn’t required to have a moral compass, he added. A 3-year-old child, for instance, may not consciously articulate a system of right and wrong, but will (hopefully) still feel guilty for stealing his playmate’s toy. (Scientists continue to debate whether or not babies have moral compasses.)
  
  If one accepts that animals have moral compasses, Rowlands argues, we have the responsibility to treat them with respect, Rowlands said. “If the animal is capable of acting morally, I don’t think it’s problematic to be friends with your pets,” he said. “If you have a cat or a dog and you make it do tricks, I am not sure that’s respect. If you insist on dressing them up, I’m not sure I’m onboard with that either.”


I posted this Livescience article up on scinerds because it remind me of a few months back when people  were arguing about genuinely treating animals like friends and not objects. When you see an animal as a pet more than a companion I think there’s not much real respect between the two of you. But if you actually do more co-existing and frequently feeding/ cleaning them then I think that’s more of a real companionship  and thus demands some level of respect. I guess it’s all about how you look at it. But from what I see, most people have this kind of ‘you obey me or else’ kind of relationship with these animals, and like the researcher above noted, that’s not respect. Just my 2 cents on this piece. I hope to see more on this topic so I can formulate a clearer opinion.

ikenbot:

Animals Are Moral Creatures, Scientist Argues

Until recently, scientists would have said your cat was snuggling up to you only as a means to get tasty treats. But many animals have a moral compass, and feel emotions such as love, grief, outrage and empathy, a new book argues.

The book, “Can Animals Be Moral?” (Oxford University Press, October 2012), suggests social mammals such as rats, dogs and chimpanzees can choose to be good or bad. And because they have morality, we have moral obligations to them, said author Mark Rowlands, a University of Miami philosopher.

“Animals are owed a certain kind of respect that they wouldn’t be owed if they couldn’t act morally,” Rowlands told LiveScience. But while some animals have complex emotions, they don’t necessarily have true morality, other researchers argue.

Moral behavior?

Some research suggests animals have a sense of outrage when social codes are violated. Chimpanzees may punish other chimps for violating certain rules of the social order, said Marc Bekoff, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and co-author of “Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals” (University Of Chicago Press, 2012).

Male bluebirds that catch their female partners stepping out may beat the female, said Hal Herzog, a psychologist at Western Carolina University who studies how humans think about animals.

And there are many examples of animals demonstrating ostensibly compassionate or empathetic behaviors toward other animals, including humans. In one experiment, hungry rhesus monkeys refused to electrically shock their fellow monkeys, even when it meant getting food for themselves. In another study, a female gorilla named Binti Jua rescued an unconscious 3-year-old (human) boy who had fallen into her enclosure at the Brookline Zoo in Illinois, protecting the child from other gorillas and even calling for human help. And when a car hit and injured a dog on a busy Chilean freeway several years ago, its canine compatriot dodged traffic, risking its life to drag the unconscious dog to safety.

All those examples suggest that animals have some sense of right and wrong, Rowlands said. “I think what’s at the heart of following morality is the emotions,” Rowlands said. “Evidence suggests that animals can act on those sorts of emotions.”

Instinct, not morals?

Not everyone agrees these behaviors equal morality, however. One of the most obvious examples — the guilty look of a dog that has just eaten a forbidden food — may not be true remorse, but simply the dog responding appropriately to its owner’s disappointment, according to a study published in the journal Behavioural Processes in 2009.

And animals don’t seem to develop or follow rules that serve no purpose for them or their species, suggesting they don’t reason about morality. Humans, in contrast, have a grab bag of moral taboos, such as prohibitions on eating certain foods, committing blasphemy, or marrying distant cousins.

“What I think is interesting about human morality is that often times there’s this wacky, arbitrary feature of it,” Herzog said. Instead, animal emotions may be rooted in instinct and hard-wiring, rather than conscious choice, Herzog said. “They look to us like moral behaviors, but they’re not rooted in the same mire of intellect and culture and language that human morality is,” he said.

Hard-wired morality

But Rowlands argues that such hair-splitting is overthinking things. In the case of the child-rescuing gorilla Binti Jua, for instance, “what sort of instinct is involved there? Do gorillas have an instinct to help unconscious boys in enclosures?” he said.

And even if instinct is involved, human parents have an instinctive desire to help their children, but that makes the desire no less moral, he said. Being able to reason about morality isn’t required to have a moral compass, he added. A 3-year-old child, for instance, may not consciously articulate a system of right and wrong, but will (hopefully) still feel guilty for stealing his playmate’s toy. (Scientists continue to debate whether or not babies have moral compasses.)

If one accepts that animals have moral compasses, Rowlands argues, we have the responsibility to treat them with respect, Rowlands said. “If the animal is capable of acting morally, I don’t think it’s problematic to be friends with your pets,” he said. “If you have a cat or a dog and you make it do tricks, I am not sure that’s respect. If you insist on dressing them up, I’m not sure I’m onboard with that either.”

I posted this Livescience article up on scinerds because it remind me of a few months back when people were arguing about genuinely treating animals like friends and not objects. When you see an animal as a pet more than a companion I think there’s not much real respect between the two of you. But if you actually do more co-existing and frequently feeding/ cleaning them then I think that’s more of a real companionship and thus demands some level of respect. I guess it’s all about how you look at it. But from what I see, most people have this kind of ‘you obey me or else’ kind of relationship with these animals, and like the researcher above noted, that’s not respect. Just my 2 cents on this piece. I hope to see more on this topic so I can formulate a clearer opinion.

(Source: scinerds)

Post by scinerds (via questionall)
November 16, 2012 at 11:04 AM | Post Permalink | 5,927 notes



ikenbot:

neurosciencestuff:


Gender stereotypes and nature vs. nurture
Leading neuroscientist Professor Simon Baron Cohen will be taking part in a debate at this year’s Cambridge Festival of Ideas on whether science has been used to promote gender stereotypes.
Neuroscientists have been criticised in recent books by feminist writers such as Natasha Walter’s Living Dolls for bolstering gender stereotypes.
Simon Baron Cohen, professor of developmental psychopathology at the University of Cambridge, says critics who argue that gender difference is all a question of socialisation are in danger of oversimplifying the interaction of biology and experience. He says: “Some gender differences in the mind and behaviour may in part be the result of our biology (prenatal hormones and genes) interacting with our experience. The old nature vs. nurture debate is absurdly simplistic and a moderate position recognises the interaction of both.
He adds that he is wary of neuroscience research being used to bolster traditional gender stereotypes. He says: “The main goal of neuroscience is to understand the mind, and is certainly not to bolster traditional views.”

The aim of the Festival, which is in its fourth year, is to celebrate the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. Most of the over 170 events running during the Festival are free, but some debates may need to be prebooked.
More information: www.cam.ac.uk/festivalofideas *Gender differences: nature vs nurture takes place from 7.30-9pm at the Babbage Theatre, Downing Street on 30 October.

Wow this is actually a really interesting and hot topic right now, I would definitely be interested in hearing more of his opinion. And as our culture continues to rapidly diversify we have to accommodate to the newer groups to avoid pointless social clashes in every aspect including scientific.

ikenbot:

neurosciencestuff:

Gender stereotypes and nature vs. nurture

Leading neuroscientist Professor Simon Baron Cohen will be taking part in a debate at this year’s Cambridge Festival of Ideas on whether science has been used to promote gender stereotypes.

Neuroscientists have been criticised in recent books by feminist writers such as Natasha Walter’s Living Dolls for bolstering gender stereotypes.

Simon Baron Cohen, professor of developmental psychopathology at the University of Cambridge, says critics who argue that gender difference is all a question of socialisation are in danger of oversimplifying the interaction of biology and experience. He says: “Some gender differences in the mind and behaviour may in part be the result of our biology (prenatal hormones and genes) interacting with our experience. The old nature vs. nurture debate is absurdly simplistic and a moderate position recognises the interaction of both.

He adds that he is wary of neuroscience research being used to bolster traditional gender stereotypes. He says: “The main goal of neuroscience is to understand the mind, and is certainly not to bolster traditional views.”

The aim of the Festival, which is in its fourth year, is to celebrate the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. Most of the over 170 events running during the Festival are free, but some debates may need to be prebooked.

More information: www.cam.ac.uk/festivalofideas
*Gender differences: nature vs nurture takes place from 7.30-9pm at the Babbage Theatre, Downing Street on 30 October.

Wow this is actually a really interesting and hot topic right now, I would definitely be interested in hearing more of his opinion. And as our culture continues to rapidly diversify we have to accommodate to the newer groups to avoid pointless social clashes in every aspect including scientific.

Post by neurosciencestuff (via scinerds)
October 8, 2012 at 9:48 PM | Post Permalink | 377 notes



Try standing on one foot. Not so hard, you say? Try it with your eyes closed.

the-psychology-blog:

Aha! Suddenly things got much harder. With eyes closed you may begin to wobble and tilt, but as soon as you open them, things get easier again. You can achieve this same effect by standing on one foot in a completely darkened room.

Don’t laugh until you’ve tried it!

What’s Going On?

Well, you may have heard that our sense of balance is centered in our ears. To a certain extent, this is true.

In each ear is a series of organs that respond to various kinds of motion. Some sense forward and backward motion, some rotation.

Registering Movement

These motion-detectors are not sensitive enough, though, to register movement unless it is of a fairly significant sort. You wouldn’t want to get dizzy every time you turn your head!

We rely to a significant degree on our eyes for more fine-tuning of our balance. If you think about it, this makes sense.

By sensing the pull of gravity or your head’s motion, your ears tell you where you are. But your eyes add to that information as well, just by looking. Think of how a fast-paced movie makes you dizzy, just by watching it.

Helpful After Image

One thing some people find helps them with their eyes closed is the after-image of a bright light. Even the sensation that you are looking at something can make you feel less in danger of falling over.

Post by the-psychology-blog (via the-psychology-blog)
September 30, 2012 at 8:26 PM | Post Permalink | 18 notes



5 Important Brain Functions

psych-facts:

1. Processing Speed

This is the speed at which the brain can process information. When we are tired, we process information much slower. It generally slows down with age. Slower processing speed affects ability to make correct decisions, because we are slower to put information together. 

People with slower processing speed generally require more time on exams or tests, and two ways to boost processing speed are to train yourself or to get more sleep.  

2. Working Memory 

This is the amount of information we can hold in our brain at a given time. As we age, it’s harder for us to deal with a lot of information because of a decreasing working capacity. This leads to all sorts of problems. For example, we’re more likely to forget what was said a few minutes ago than what was said few seconds ago. We also have more trouble keeping track of what people say than what we read ourselves.To maintain our working memory, we can train it or we can use reminders to help us remember. 

Read More

Post by psych-facts (via psych-facts)
September 5, 2012 at 11:42 PM | Post Permalink | 5,269 notes



Memory Facts

psych-facts:

onlinecounsellingcollege:

1. Autism & Memory: Many people with autism have amazing memories. For example, they can draw a city landscape that looks like a photograph, or remember fact in an encyclopedia.

2. Sleep & Memory: Sleeps helps us process and store new material we’ve learned, and it help with retrieval of long-term memories.

3. Age & Memory: Memory doesn’t decrease with age - as long as we continue to exercise our brains. In fact, we build new neural pathways throughout our lives.

4. Complexity & Memory: The more effort you put in to understanding your work, the greater the chance that you’ll remember it.

5. The Truth & memories: If we are led to create a scenario in our mind, we start to believe that it really occurred – even if it is a false memory.

Read More

Post by onlinecounsellingcollege (via psych-facts)
August 1, 2012 at 5:15 PM | Post Permalink | 1,533 notes



10 Strange Phenomena of the Mind

psych-facts:

1. Deja vu

Deja vu is an experience of having seen or experienced a new situation previously. It feels like if the event has already happened before. The experience is usually accompanied by a strong sense of familiarity and a sense of paradox or bizarre. The “previous” experience is usually attributed to a dream, but sometimes there is a constant feeling that it really has happened in the past.

2. Deja Vecu

Deja vecu is what most people experience when they think they are having a deja vu. Deja vu is when one has a feeling that he has seen something before, whereas deja vecu is an experience of having seen an event before, but with great detail as to recognize the smells and sounds. This also is usually accompanied by a very strong sense of knowledge about what will happen next.

3. Deja senti

Deja senti is a phenomenon of having already felt something. The phrase “I have felt it before” perfectly captures deja senti. It is only a mental phenomenon and seldom remains in our memory later. Many epileptic patients often experience deja senti.

4. Deja Visite

Deja visite is a less common experience and includes an unexplained knowledge of a new place. For example, you may know the location around you (a new city or a landscape) although you have never been there before.

5. Jamais Vu

Jamais Vu describes a familiar situation that we do not recognize. It is often considered to be the opposite phenomenon of deja vu. The observer does not recognize the situation although it is known that he has experienced it before.

Read More

Post by psych-facts (via psych-facts)
July 29, 2012 at 11:01 PM | Post Permalink | 3,734 notes



Feed your Brain

psych-facts:

onlinecounsellingcollege:

Although the average brain only weighs 3lbs it uses 20% of the calories we eat. To maximise the benefits of food to the brain, think about including the following:

1.       Foods to boost concentration – Anything containing mega-3 oils. For example, oily fish, walnuts, pumpkin seeds and flax seeds.

2.       Foods to improve mood – Anything that’s rich in dopamine or serotonin. For example, beets, soybeans, almonds, eggs, meat, grains and dark chocolate.

3.       Foods to boost memory – Anything that’s rich in acetylcholine. 

Read More

Post by onlinecounsellingcollege (via psych-facts)
July 29, 2012 at 1:33 AM | Post Permalink | 3,672 notes



Some Interesting Info on the Brain

psychology2010:

onlinecounsellingcollege:

1. You need oxygen and glucose to exert your will – so it’s harder say ‘no’ when you’re feeling tired.

2. Although most of us are either left brained or right brained, we all switch sides briefly every 90 to 120 minutes.

3. The brain is approximately 75% water.

Read More

Post by onlinecounsellingcollege (via monviemylife)
July 27, 2012 at 9:28 PM | Post Permalink | 6,176 notes



Tai's Psychology Blog: Some Interesting Info on the Brain

onlinecounsellingcollege:

1. You need oxygen and glucose to exert your will – so it’s harder say ‘no’ when you’re feeling tired.

2. Although most of us are either left brained or right brained, we all switch sides briefly every 90 to 120 minutes.

3. The brain is approximately…

Post by onlinecounsellingcollege (via monviemylife)
July 21, 2012 at 11:40 PM | Post Permalink | 6,176 notes



Question Everything: Bee research sheds light on human sweet perception, metabolic disorders

neurosciencestuff:

June 29, 2012

Scientists at Arizona State University have discovered that honey bees may teach us about basic connections between taste perception and metabolic disorders in humans.

Honey bees may help scientists understand how food-related behaviors interact…

Post by neurosciencestuff (via questionall)
June 30, 2012 at 12:50 PM | Post Permalink | 15 notes



Question Everything: Fishing for Answers to Autism Puzzle

neurosciencestuff:

ScienceDaily (June 19, 2012) — Fish cannot display symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, or other human brain disorders. However, a team of Whitehead Institute and MIT scientists has shown that zebrafish can be a useful tool for studying the genes that contribute to such…

Post by neurosciencestuff (via questionall)
June 20, 2012 at 6:45 PM | Post Permalink | 25 notes



rainbowcatvomit:

fuckyeahmolecularbiology:

Meet Phineas Gage, more commonly known as neuroscience’s most intriguing case.

On September 18th, 1848, the unfortunate 25-year-old railroad worker was using an iron rod to tamp down blasting powder when it exploded, sending the 43-inch-long, 13-pound cylinder through his left cheek and out the top of his head.

While the accident was certainly ghastly, what baffled scientists was both Gage’s survival, and, even stranger, his profound personality changes following the incident. John Harlow, a doctor who treated the once-affable Gage, wrote that he “could not stick to plans, uttered ‘the grossest profanity’ and showed ‘little deference for his fellows,’” as reported by Smithsonian magazine in 2010. Through the remainder of his life, Gage worked at a stable in New Hampshire and then as a stagecoach driver in Chile before moving to San Francisco. He died there after a series of seizures 12 years after the accident.

Even now, 152 years after Gage’s death, he still remains intriguing to neuroscientists - so intriguing, in fact, that his head is prompting a new wave of research. In a new study, published in the May 16 issue of the journal PLoS One, scientists at UCLA used brain-mapping data from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to determine the specific damage inflicted on the neurological “pathways” in Gage’s brain.

“What we found was a significant loss of white matter connecting the left frontal regions and the rest of the brain,” said study co-author Jack Van Horn, an assistant professor of neurology at UCLA. “We suggest that the disruption of the brain’s ‘network’ considerably compromised it [the white matter]. This may have had an even greater impact on Mr. Gage than the damage to the cortex alone in terms of his purported personality change.”

Only about 4% of Gage’s cerebral cortex was directly affected by the rod, the study showed. But more than 10 percent of the white matter was damaged. The white matter is the fatty tissue within the brain that coordinates communication between its different regions.

In addition to helping explain Gage’s deterioration, the study showcases the power of brain mapping - a technology that neurologists believe will lead eventually to an understanding of the links between the brain’s “wiring” and specific mental disorders. Even more intriguingly, the study managed to draw parallels between Gage’s case and several modern neurological traumas, including Alzheimer’s disease.

He may have died in 1860, but I have a feeling that we haven’t seen the last of Phineas Gage - or his ghastly accident’s lasting contributions to modern neuroscience.

For more information on Gage and the study, check out the PopSci article here.

Upper image: A computer-generated 3D rendering of the iron rod through Gage’s brain as estimated from his skull (which is on display at Warren Anatomical Museum in Boston, along with the tamping rod).

Lower Images: Left, a circular representation of cortical anatomy and WM connectivity in a normal 25 to 36-year-old male. Right, the mean connectivity affected by the presence of the tamping iron combined across subjects. (And an estimate of Gage’s neural connectivity).

Phineas Gage is one of my favorite psychological cases.

(Source: amolecularmatter)

Post by amolecularmatter (via spooky-cat-vomit)
June 9, 2012 at 10:26 PM | Post Permalink | 392 notes



Emotion reversed in the brains of left handers.

neuroticthought:

Fascinating observations from Brookshire and Casasanto:

According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH), according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the “sword hand,” used preferentially to perform approach actions) and the nondominant hand (i.e., the “shield hand,” used preferentially to perform avoidance actions).
To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity) in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants’ trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers.
The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.
Post by neuroticthought (via questionall)
May 19, 2012 at 2:41 PM | Post Permalink | 43 notes




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